The long list of water related diseases and conditions include Anaemia, Ascariasis, Botulism, Diarrhoea, Dracunculiasis, Fluorosis, Hookworm infection, Japanese encephalitis, Lymphatic filariasis, Malaria, Malnutrition, Polio, Ring Worm, Tinea, Scabies, Schistomiasis. But prevalently, the most common and the most troublesome of water related diseases, in terms of public health or health of a community are:
There is also the increased risk of infection or water-borne diseases contracted through direct contact with polluted waters. Among them are:
- Typhoid fever
- Hepatitis A
Transmission: Public or private drinking water systems may be contaminated with urine and faeces of people or animals. This is likely to occur where surface water is the source of public and private drinking water systems. Water collected from rain, creeks, rivers, lakes - all account for surface water. Runoff from landfills, septic fields, sewer pipes, residential or industrial developments can also sometimes contaminate surface water.
- Wound infections
- Ear, nose and throat infections
Prevention: Clean water is a prerequisite for reducing the spread of water-borne diseases. It is well recognised that the prevalence of water-borne diseases can be greatly reduced by giving due attention to the quality of drinking water and the safe disposal of faeces.