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Melanoma

 

Melanoma is a kind of skin cancer due to uncontrolled growth of melanocytes or pigment cells affecting the skin and sometimes the eyes and intestines.

Causes
Causes are not clear but risk factors include:

  • Excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays
  • Heredity

Symptoms

  • Asymmetrical mole or growth on the skin
  • Patchy or multicolored skin growth
  • Change in color or size of a skin growth
  • Bleeding from a skin growth

Treatment
Treatment varies according to the extent of the cancer and may include:

  • Surgical removal of the tumor in case of superficial cancers
  • Surgical removal of the tumor and affected lymph nodes when cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Immunotherapy

Prevention

  • Avoid excessive exposure to hot sun
  • Avoid tanning beds and devices
  • Wear protective clothing and hats while moving out in hot sun