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Kidney Stone

 

A kidney stone is a solid mass of crystals formed in the kidney or bladder from minerals dissolved in urine.

Causes

  • High levels of oxalates, uric acid or cystine in urine
  • Certain health conditions like hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular acidosis, etc.
  • Renal or urinary tract infections
  • Certain medication
  • Heredity

Symptoms
Symptoms are often not present. In case of large stones, symptoms may include:

  • Extreme pain in the lower abdomen,  back or side
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Blood in urine
  • Increased frequency of urination
  • Burning sensation during urination
  • Fever or chills

Treatment
Most kidney stones pass out on their own through urination. In case of large stones causing blockage treatment may include:

  • Drinking plenty of water to help move the stone
  • Pain medication
  • Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) to break down the stones through shock waves
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy to remove the stone through incision
  • Ureteroscopic stone removal by passing a ureteroscope through urethra and bladder to remove a stone

Prevention

  • Drinking plenty of water through out the day
  • Changing the diet according to the kind of stones that tend to be formed
  • Reducing salt intake
  • Medication to prevent formation of more stones in case of recurrent stone formation