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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)


Gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD is a condition where stomach acid and sometimes bile often back up in the esophagus or food pipe.


  • Weak or relaxed lower esophageal sphincter muscle (LES)
  • Obesity
  • Poor posture
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Certain foods such as fatty foods, chocolates, caffeine etc
  • Eating large meals
  • Certain medical condition such as diabetes, hiatal hernia, delayed emptying of stomach etc.
  • Certain medications
  • Pregnancy


  • Frequent heartburns
  • Chest pain
  • Hoarseness
  • Dry cough
  • Reflux of food or sour stomach fluids
  • Trouble swallowing


  • Lifestyle changes such as eating smaller meals, avoiding lying down immediately after eating, avoiding spicy and heavy meals, avoiding smoking and alcohol, etc
  • Medications to control the acid production
  • Rarely, surgery to repair the LES or hiatal hernia when other treatments are ineffective


  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Eating small meals
  • Avoiding fatty and spicy food
  • Not lying down or bending down immediately after eating
  • Avoiding smoking
  • Avoiding alcohol